Going beyond the data you have

Generalization

Improving generalization

External validity

Transportability

Selection Diagrams

Example: Covariate shift

Selection diagram: source and target differ in distribution of observed confounder Z

Modified Example: Experiment to Observation

Selection diagram: source and target differ in distribution of observed confounder Z

Example: Label Shift

Selection diagram: source and target differ in distribution of outcome Y

Anti-causal Label Shift

Selection diagram: source and target differ in distribution of outcome Y

Application: Metanalysis

Selection diagram for hierarchical metanalysis: covariates and outcomes may differ by study

Sample Selection

Modeling Sample Selection